Many approaches, such as formal modelling, economic concepts, view the consumer as a result of
global food policy rather than as its central component. Nevertheless, the goal of food security problem
solving was precisely to change consumer behavior. These settings are recorded in the documents
defining global policies in the environment of food security (UN, FAO), confirming the relevance of
the problem. We demonstrate the peculiarities of the Russian food security concept, concluding that,
despite the declarations and many signed agreements, the doctrine is still based on ensuring the
country’s security in the face of possible external threats: sanctions and trade wars, various conflicts,
crises in the economy and agriculture. The aim of this article is a sociological analysis of consumer
behavior in the context of food security. The novelty and significance of the work is determined by the
fact that it draws special attention to the need of shifting the focus from external threats and hunger
in the domestic concept of food security to the threats to public health associated with purchasing
low-quality foods, social imbalances in the economic and physical availability of food, consumer
preferences and behavior. The authors analyzed the contradictions between sales operators and
product manufacturers (especially local ones), between sales operators and the ultimate consumers.
The paper uses new empirical data: a mass survey (1610 people) and 51 in-depth interviews.
The article examines the population’s trust in the quality and safety of food and the factors determining
its characteristics. The analysis of the structural characteristics of the target audience
of food stores disproves our expectations of rapid and significant changes in consumer preferences
under the influence of new formats, technologies (Internet sales, fast delivery systems, etc.).
The issue of interaction between retail, product manufacturers and local suppliers of goods remains
food security, trust, nutrition, food quality, realized consumption